The Original Georgia State Flag 1799- 1879

Notes and References



Note 1. An advertisement appearing in the Louisville Gazette, February 26, 1799 provides important details of the act of February 8, 1799, contains a detailed description of the conceptual design for the new Seal, and announces a contest for artists to submit drawings (Goetchius, 1917).  The article reads as follows.




Executive Department of Georgia, Louisville, Feb. 23rd, 1799

The Act, entitled “an act for altering the Great Seal of the State of Georgia” passed the 8th day of February, 1799, being taken up and considered:  It is

ORDERED, That a premium of thirteen dollars be given for the best drawing of the device for the great seal of this state, in pursuance of the second section of the said act- the device being as follows, towit:

“On the one side, a view of the seashore with a ship bearing the flag of the United States, riding at anchor near a wharf, receiving on board hogsheads of tobacco and bales of cotton, emblematic of the exports of this state- at a small distance a boat landing from the interior of the state, with hogsheads, etc., on board, representing her internal traffic, in the back part of the same side, a man in the act of plowing and at a s small distance a flock of sheep in different pastures shaded by a flourishing tree, the motto on this side agriculture and commerce, 1799- that the other side contain three pillars supporting an arch with the word constitution engraved within the same, emblematic of the constitution supported by the three departments of the government, viz: the legislative, judicial and executive- the first pillar to have engraven on its base wisdom, the second justice, and the third moderation; on the right of the last pillar a man standing with drawn sword representing the aid of the military in defense of the constitution- the motto state of Georgia 1799.”  Provided such drawing be lodged in the executive office, at Louisville, on or before the twentieth day of April next; the size of the seal two inches and one-quarter, and it is further

ORDERED, that proposals be received at the same office until the said twentieth day of April for forming, making and engraving the same agreeably to such device and drawing, in a masterly and workmanlike manner, on or before the third day of July next.  Bond and security to be given for the due performance of the work, within the time limited in the sum of two thousand dollars.  The proposals will be sealed up, addressed to the executive, and marked proposals for the forming, making and engraving the great seal of the the state of Georgia.  The drawings for the device of the great seal and will be examined the twentieth day of April aforesaid.

The cash will be paid for the drawing the moment it is decided on as to the best design, and the for the seal immediately it is completed and delivered, if applied for.

Taken from the minutes.

Test.                                         THOMAS JOHNSON, Secretary


According to the historian Goetchius, although the words “Wisdom,” “Justice” and “Moderation” were originally specified to be placed upon the ‘base’ of the pillars artists found that to be impracticable, so a subsequent act of the legislature authorized their placement in a “wreath upon it” (Goetchius, 1917).  However, Goetchius does not provide a date for this subsequent act and an examination of the Georgia Code reveals that the definition of the seal does not appear to have specifically placed these words in a “wreath” until a 2001 amendment that placed them upon a “scroll”.  Prior to 2001 the code specifies that these words be “engraved upon” the pillars.  See Note 2 below for more details.


Daniel Sturges is a relatively unknown but important figure in early history of the state of Georgia.  He was born in 1765 to the Reverend Daniel and Eleanor Sturges of Norborne Parrish, Virginia.  The Sturges family migrated to South Carolina about 1789 and then to Georgia in 1790.  During the 1790s the younger Daniel served as Deputy Surveyor General of the state and on January 26, 1797 was elected Surveyor General of Georgia.  He served in this capacity for six terms until 1809 and was reelected by the Senate again in 1817, serving until his death in 1823 when his son Benjamin Hicks Sturges succeeded to complete his father’s term.  Besides submitting the winning drawing for Georgia’s Coat of Arms and Great Seal Sturges also devoted twenty years to compiling the first detailed published map of the entire state. Sturges administered the first four of Georgia’s six land lotteries, in 1805, 1807, 1820, and 1821, so he had a significant influence on the development of the state’s land policies. Sturges died at Columbia, South Carolina on September 17, 1823  (Cadle, 1991).  [Back]


Note 2. In the original specification for the Coat of Arms the soldier stood outside the right-hand column.  The original description of the Great Seal of the State in the Official Code of Georgia, 50-3-30(c), read as follows,


The device on the other side is three pillars supporting an arch, with the word “Constitution” engraved within the same, emblematic of the Constitution, supported by the three departments of government, namely the legislative, judicial, and executive.  The first pillar has engraved upon it “Wisdom,” the second, “Justice,” the third, “Moderation”; on the right of the last pillar a man stands with a drawn sword, representing the aid of the military in defense of the Constitution… (Georgia Office of the Secretary of State, 1998)


Although there have been several minor variations in the design of the Coat of Arms since 1799, these were essentially ‘unofficial’ because its basic legal description had remained virtually unaltered until it was effectively amended January 31, 2001 when the current state flag was adopted.  Changes in the description were with respect to the pillar engravings and position of the military figure to now read as follows,


The device on the other side is three pillars supporting an arch, with the word “Constitution” engraved within the same, emblematic of the Constitution, supported by the three departments of government, namely the legislative, judicial, and executive.  The first pillar has engraved upon a scroll “Wisdom,” the second, “Justice,” the third, “Moderation”; between the second and third pillars a man stands with a drawn sword, representing the aid of the military in defense of the Constitution… (Georgia Office of the Secretary of State, 2002)


This amended prescription for the Coat of Arms in the Great Seal simply brought the law into conformity with what had been in practice for two centuries. [Back]


Note 3. Using newspaper accounts historian Gordon Burns Smith has reconstructed a remarkable series of three Georgia Coat of Arms state flag presentations and their descriptions for the Savannah Volunteer Guards, a Georgia Militia company founded in 1802.  The successive flag presentations took place in 1822, 1840, and 1860 (Smith, 2000).  On February 22, 1822 Mrs. Mary Marshall, wife of the regimental commander, presented a Georgia Coat of Arms flag to the Savannah Volunteer Guards; it was described as follows.


            On one side the Georgia arch of the Constitution, supported by pillars of wisdom and moderation; in the center, within the arch, Minerva, with justice on her right and peace on her left hand.  The lower part of the flag ornamented with military trophies, enclosed in a wreath of oak leaves and acorns, and an inscription containing the name of the Corps; on the reverse, a spread eagle, with military trophies and an inscription, and a wreath of oak leaves and acorns as before- the whole most elegantly worked and studded with spangle, on a ground of blue silk (The Daily Georgian, February 25, 1822).


On July 4, 1840 Mary Elizabeth and Martha Bowen presented a Georgia Coat of Arms flag to the Savannah Volunteer Guards to replace the 1822 flag.  This new flag was described as follows.


            Dark Blue field.  On one side is a Temple representing the arms of the State of Georgia, proper.  An arch, supported by three columns of the Ionic order; in the Arch, the word ‘Constitution’ is worked in very fine gold bullion.  A continuous scroll entwines and festoons the columns, on each of which, worked similarly in the Scroll are the words, ‘Wisdom,’ ‘Justice,’ and ‘Moderation;’ the columns stand on a platform elevated by three flight of granite steps; in the distance or back ground is mountain scenery.  On the left of the Temple stands Minerva properly attired with her Aegis and Spear; on the right is a sentinel in the Guards’ uniform.  The Temple stands on rising ground, in front an on either side of it is a beautiful green sward at the base of which is a ground work of variegated rocks.  Midway of this ground work, on a rock are seen the initials of the Corps, ‘S.V.G.’ and the date of its formation.  A beautiful oak wreath partly encircles the whole work.  Above the Temple soars the American eagle, in a galaxy of 26 stars, with shield and arrows, and bearing in its beak a Scroll floating gracefully, in which is worked with fine silver bullion- ‘Savannah Volunteer Guards, 4th July 1840.’  On the other side, the ground work represents a battle field, cannon, ball, musket, drum, &c; on the field is a large figure representing an officer of the Guards, advancing sword hand to the enemy and looking back in encouragement to his command.  A rich oak wreath also partly encircles this representation.  The flag is bordered and ornamented with rich white silk fringe and tassels.  The whole of the work with the exception of the faces is executed in embroidery with silk and chenille.  The faces of the figures are finished in the tent stitch.  No painting or gilding is on the flag, and it presents an appearance of durability, seldom to be met with in fabrics of this kind (The Daily Georgian, July 9, 1840).


On Saint Tammany’s Day 1860, William P. Hunter, a retired member of the Savannah Volunteer Guards, presented a new Georgia Coat of Arms flag to the company to replace the 1840 flag.  This new flag was the gift of Mrs. Margaret Barclay, the adopted daughter of the same Mrs. Mary Marshall that had made the 1822 flag presentation to the company.  This new flag was described as follows.


Surmounted by stars in glory- American eagle bearing the States (sic) of the United States- also bearing an olive branch in one talon, arrows in the other- carrying a scroll of the Savannah Volunteer Guards- under scroll a wreath bearing the date of the company, 1802- supported by flags, cannon and other military insignia- whole surmounted by a wreath of oak.

The Reverse.- Coat of Arms of the State of Georgia, in front of which stands an altar, over which is thrown a scroll with the motto of the Guards, Pro Aris et Focis- rear filled with an encampment- the whole surmounted by a wreath of laurel.

The flag was designed by Mr. L. Salvaterre- is of blue silk, with buff fringe- at the top of the staff is a silver spear (Daily Morning News, May 3, 1860).


The Jefferson Riflemen were organized in Jefferson County, Georgia, in February 1836 to fight in the Second Seminole War (Florida War) 1835- 1842. Most of the men were from Louisville, the Jefferson county seat. The Jefferson Riflemen were part of the 2nd (Williamson's) Regiment of Georgia Volunteers in the Florida War.  They were reorganized after the war in 1845 and despite the Mexican War era date that appears on this flag, they did not leave the state. The unit disbanded in the years just before the Civil War (Smith, 2000). [Back]


Note 4.  Flags at the Georgia Secession Convention, January 1861- Besides the Georgia Coat of Arms flag there were two lone star flags that played a role in the Georgia Secession Convention.  This special session convened on January 16, 1861, at which time a white flag with a lone star (color unknown) was raised over the Capitol State House and flew during the deliberations. That flag was inscribed with "Georgia- Equality in or Independence out of the Union". The crucial vote for secession came on Saturday January 19, and the Ordinance of Secession was signed on Monday January 21, at which time the Georgia Coat of Arms flag was raised over the Capitol State House. Therefore, the Coat of Arms flag represented not only the State from 1799 until Secession, but now it flew over the Georgia Republic. On January 24, 1861 Governor Joseph E. Brown led twelve men from the Washington Artillery and a squad from the Oglethorpe Infantry to take possession of the State Arsenal, which was immediately adjacent to the State House.  From over the arsenal they removed the US flag and raised a white flag with a 5-pointed red star.  Since it was the Oglethorpe Infantry involved in this flag-raising there is a strong possibility that this flag was the same one that they had earlier raised over Fort Pulaski on January 2.


Georgia Flag at Jefferson Davis’ Inauguration- Thomas R. R. Cobb (1823- 1862) was a Georgia delegate to the Confederate Convention at Montgomery, Alabama in February 1861.  During the Convention he wrote letters to his wife daily relating the important events and the following extract from one such letter describes the Columbus Guards during Jefferson Davis’ inauguration.


Feb. 18. The Inauguration pleased every body and the manner in which Davis took the oath of office was most impressive.  The scene was one worth seeing and remembering and I regret more than ever you are not here.  Some of the ladies prepared a beautiful wreath of flowers and hung it on the Presdt’s arm.  The bouquets were showered on him in great abundance.  At the head of the procession was Capt. Semmes’ Columbus Guards in a beautiful uniform of sky-blue pants and bright red coats carrying a Banner with the Georgia Coat of Arms.  By the way they drilled in the Zouave Tactics this morning at the Exchange where thousands surrounded to witness their skill (Cobb, 1861).


A typical example of a state flag presentation ceremony was that of the Black Spring Rifles at Milledgeville, Georgia on February 28, 1861.  Here is an article entitled ‘Flag Presentation’ from Milledgeville’s Southern Federal Union newspaper dated Tuesday March 3, 1861 describing the ceremony and flag.


Ever foremost in the works of patriotism, the Ladies in many parts of our State have presented beautiful Flags to companies who hold themselves in readiness to march at a moment’s warning, as duty may require.  On Friday we had the pleasure of witnessing a presentation ceremony in our town, which was attended by the Governor’s Guards, the Baldwin Blues, the University Guards, and the Black Spring Rifles, all in uniform, with music and banners.

Mrs. Mary Rogers of Savannah, Mrs. Carnes, Mrs. Tinsley, Mrs. Harris, Miss R. Harris, Mrs. Matilda Hall, Mrs. McComb, Mrs. DeGraffenreid, Mrs. Latimer,  Mrs. Carrie White, Miss Kate Fort, Miss Sallie Newel, Miss Henrietta Kenan and Mrs. H. Kenan, of Milledgeville, contributed to the purchase and manufacture of a large and splendid Flag of blue silk, on side of which was painted in gilt the Coat of Arms of Georgia, surrounded by a wreath, and on the reverse side, “Black Spring Rifles, January 16, 1861.”

            A large concourse of citizens assembled with the military at 3 o’clock P.M. fronting the residence of Mr. Kenan, on Liberty Street, where the presentation was to take place.  The adjutant General, Col. Wayne, in full uniform on horseback, gave command to the military, in forming the line, and introduced the Rev. William Flinn, who dedicated the Flag by an appropriate prayer.  Miss Henrietta Kenan had been selected by the Ladies to present the Flag, but at her request that duty was performed by her gallant brother, Captain Lewis H. Kenan who stood at the side of his sister.  Owing to the distance, we were unable to hear the address distinctly, and from the same cause we did not hear fully the reply of Captain Thomas White of the Rifles, who received the Flag in behalf of his company.  At a signal given, a discharge of artillery on the Capitol square announced the conclusion of the ceremonies, after which the military marched in handsome style, accompanied by the graceful new Flag which had been the occasion of such agreeable excitement.  Long may it wave a memorial of its fair donor, to cheer the times of peace, and, if need be, to stimulate the brave soldier to deeds of daring on the battlefield!

            The whole affair was handsomely managed, and reflected the highest praise on all who shared in the ceremonies.


Miss Henrietta Kenan later married Capt. White (Smith, 2000). More than three years later on November 24, 1864 the Union Army’s XIV Corps, operating as the Left Wing on the ‘March to the Sea’, and accompanied by General Sherman himself, left Milledgeville and marched east through Black Spring on their way to Sandersville and eventually on to Savannah. [Back]


Note 5. This engraving purportedly shows the Georgia Brigade (7th and 8th Georgia Regiments) at the Battle of First Manassas, July 1861.  The officer on the horse to the right is General Joseph E. Johnston; the approaching rider, carrying the Coat of Arms flag of the 7th Georgia Regiment, is Col. Francis Bartow, commanding the brigade. Moments later Col. Bartow was mortally wounded.  This same illustration serves as the wall mural in the Georgia Capitol Museum Flag Room  (Thulstrup, 1887).  There is other conflicting evidence that these regiments carried Confederate First National flags at this battle (Biggs, 2003).  Although the artist Thulstrup is known for his faithful depictions of military subjects his sources for this engraving are unknown.  An examination of this engraving under magnification also reveals that there is a female figure standing in front of each column.  These are believed to be associated with the Titanides or related goddesses of Greek mythology, perhaps representing Metis as Wisdom, Themis as Justice, and Sophrosyne as Moderation.  These figures were not an element of the original Coat of Arms design.  Coat of Arms with these mythological figures are some of the oldest variations on the original design. [Back]


Note 6. Georgia Coat of Arms Flag, Civil War era- (Fort Pulaski Catalog No. 1452)  This rectangular, two-sided silk flag of an unidentified Georgia military unit measures 38 by 42-inches, including the fringe.  It was hand-painted on both sides. Savannah artist Jean Louis Fermin Cerveau rendered this handsome Coat of Arms on an oval background.  Although only faintly visible in this photograph, the word “Constitution”, which typically appears on the arch is here lettered onto the lintel supporting the arch.  The reverse side of the flag features a painted scene of monument or ceremonial hearth with a fire on a cream-colored oval and field.  Across the top is pained a banner with the words, “Our Country and Our Home” and lettered across the bottom is the date Georgia seceded from the Union,  “Jany 19th, 1861” (Kirkland, 2003). Cerveau was a Turkish-born portrait and landscape artist who moved to Savannah in the 1830s.  He is well known for his 1837 panoramic view of Savannah (Waring, 1973).  He also is known to have produced several flags for Georgia units (Biggs, 2003).  In the 1870 census of Chatham County Georgia he was reported to be “French”, so perhaps he studied in France before immigrating to the United States. [Back]


Note 7. Georgia Coat of Arms Flag, Civil War era- (Fort Pulaski Catalog No. 1451)  This is a rectangular, two-sided silk regimental flag of the First Georgia Regulars measuring 65 by 77-inches.  This flag with its inked and painted Coat of Arms on a cream-colored field is in very poor condition but sufficient elements of its design have remained for museum conservators to reconstruct its general appearance.  This drawing is from their report  (Kirkland, 2003).  This flag was presented to the regiment on June 19, 1861 at Savannah following a military review.   Sgt. William H. Andrews gave the following account of its presentation and a description of the flag in his memoirs.


After the review one of the handsomest state flags I have ever seen was presented to the regiment, the gift of Miss Howard of Columbus, Ga., Col. Charles Williams’ sister in law.  It certainly was a beauty, made of costly silk with the First Confederate colors on one side, and the state of Georgia on the other.  Just below the Coat of Arms in large gilt letters is “First Regiment Georgia Regulars.”  It was a gift ever held sacred by the members of the regiment.  At the same time it was never unfurled to the breeze on a battlefield, but was used on dress parades and marching through towns and cities (Andrews, 1992).


The “Miss Howard” that made this flag presentation was probably Eliza Georgia Howard (1837- 1892), carrying on a family tradition initiated by her older sister Mary Ann.  The first commander of this regiment, Col. Charles Williams of Columbus, Ga., had been the Major of the First Georgia Regiment during the Mexican War 1846- 1848. Columbus had served as the headquarters for state volunteers. According to historian Nancy Telfair, before the regiment left for Mexico on June 28, 1846 Mary Ann Howard presented them with a United States flag (Telfair, 1929).  However, Telfair’s source which was historian  I. W. Avery, does not specify the type of flag that was presented to the regiment (Avery, 1881).  A July 1, 1846 article in the Columbus Enquirer newspaper described the flag simply as a “STAND OF COLORS- the badge of the Union- the emblem of civil and religious independence...”  It is still not clear whether this flag was an Eagle-pattern regimental color or a Stars and Stripes National Standard; usually a set of both flags composed a “stand of colors” per se for a regiment during the Mexican War but the newspaper article mentioned only a single flag.  Shortly after the Mexican War in 1848 Mary Ann Howard married Maj. Williams.  Tragically Col. Williams, who had before the Civil War served as Speaker of the House of Representatives in Georgia, became ill and died during the early months of the war not long after the presentation of this new Coat of Arms flag to his regiment. His widow Mary Ann Williams, besides caring for her four children, was a member of Columbus’ Ladies Aid Society, serving as a volunteer nurse in the city’s hospitals, and later was a founding member of the Ladies Memorial Association to commemorate the city’s war dead, all of which later inspired her to play a prominent role in establishing the first Memorial Day in the South in April 1866 by widely soliciting throughout the region for its observance (Howard, 1912). [Back]


Note 8. Georgia Coat of Arms Flag, Reconstruction era- (Fort Pulaski Catalog No. 1450)  No photograph has been provided of this flag.  This is a rectangular, two-sided silk flag with an embroidered Coat of Arms on a blue field.  Vertically centered on the Coat of Arms is the unit designation “Savannah Cadets”, embroidered in an arc above the top of the flag, and “Organized May 17th 1861” is stitched in a straight line below the Arms across the bottom.  The reverse side has a depiction of four staff-mounted flags, two on either side of and tilting away from a semicircular-arrangement of garlands of leaves surrounding the intertwined initials “SC”.  Three of the flags depicted appear to be Confederate but one is distinctly a United State flag bearing 38 stars in its canton. Colorado was the 38th state admitted on August 1, 1876. Shown in front of one the two sets of flags is a stand of arms, which appear to be trap-door type breech-loading rifles (Kirkland, 2003).  Back on the obverse side, the military figure guarding the Coat of Arms is shown wearing a spiked helmet.  The spiked helmet, or ‘pickelhaube’, was introduced in Prussia in 1842 and became a popular style in the later half of the nineteenth century in many countries. These clues indicate that this is a very late Reconstruction era flag dating probably between 1876 and 1879. [Back]


Note on Music. The background music on these web pages are digital examples of military music that was popular with the Georgia Militia. The tune on the main page represents the song “Savannah Volunteer Guards” that was composed in 1823 by Thomas U.P. Charlton and sung to the air “Bannockburn” an earlier tune written by Robert Burns in 1793.  The full name of the Burn’s tune was “Scots Wha’ Hae, Robert Bruce’s March to Bannockburn,” which commemorated the battle in 1314 where Robert the Bruce regained the freedom of Scotland from Edward II of England (Burns, 1793).  The tune on this Notes and References page is entitled “The Girl I Left Behind Me,” also a popular tune with the Savannah Militia (Smith, 2000).  It was known in America as early as 1650 and became a very popular fife and vocal tune during the American Revolution.  The song is included here to honor the women of Georgia who gave their men in defense of the State and, of course, as a salute to their flag-making artistry (Taylor, 2003).  The music on the ‘Coat of Arms’ page is the “Georgia Grenadiers March”, a Revolutionary War era piece of fife and drum field music that was popular among the Georgia Militia (Beck, 1786; Smith, 2000).   The playback quality of this digital music  is dependent on your computer's soundcard.  Many soundcards produce many different sounds. The music may sound nearly realistic on one computer while totally undesirable on another.  The purpose of the MIDI is simply to give the listener a general impression of the music. To listen to the MIDI files, your computer must; first, have a soundcard connected and be working properly; second, your web-browser must be set to play MIDI files.








Anderson, Mary Savage. Georgia, A Pageant of Years.  For the Georgia Society of the Colonial Dames of America by Garrett & Massie, Incorporated.  Richmond, Virginia.  1933.


Andrews, W.H. Footprints of a Regiment, A Recollection of the 1st Georgia Regulars, 1861- 1865. Longstreet Press.  Atlanta, Georgia. 1992.


Avery, I. W.  The History of the State of Georgia from 1850 to 1881, Embracing Three Important Epochs: The Decade Before the War of 1861- 5; The War; The Period of Reconstruction. Brown & Derby.  New York, New York. 1881


Beck, Henry. “Georgia Grenadiers March”  digital music file sequenced by Ron Aylor.  From ‘Beck Manuscript’ at Continental Fife and Drum. Internet Web site Beck version copied in 1786; MIDI version 2001.


Beeson, Leola Selman.  History Stories of Milledgeville and Baldwin County.  The J.W. Burke Company.  Macon, Georgia.  1943.


Biggs, Greg.  Author.  Flags of the Confederacy Internet Web site Http:// and personal communication.  2003.


Burns, Robert. “Scots Wha’ Hae, Robert Bruce’s March to Bannockburn,” from Scottish Radiance. Internet Web site Original tune by Burns, 1793.  MIDI version, July 1999.


Cadle, Farris W.  Georgia Land Surveying History and Law.  University of Georgia Press.  Athens, Georgia.  1991.


Cannon, Devereau D. Cannon, Jr.  The Flags of the Confederacy, An Illustrated History.  Pelican Publishing Company.  Gretna, Louisiana. 1997


Cobb, Thomas R.R. “Correspondence of T.R.R. Cobb, 1860- 62.”  Publications of the Southern History Association, XI (May, 1907), 159- 183 as quoted in McMillan, Malcolm E. Editor.  The Alabama Confederate Reader.  The University of Alabama Press.  Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 1963.


Derry, J.T. Georgia, A Guide to its Cities, Towns, Scenery and Resources.  J.B. Lippincott & Co.  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  1878.


Edgar, Walter.  South Carolina, A History.  University of South Carolina Press.  Columbia, South Carolina.  1998.


Ellingson, Paul. Editor.  Confederate Flags in the Georgia Capitol Collection. Georgia Office of the Secretary of State. 1994.


Goetchius, Henry R. ‘The Great Seals of Georgia; Their Origin and History’ in The Georgia Historical Quarterly.  Georgia Historical Society.  Savannah, Georgia. Vol. 1, No. 3. September 1917.


Holmes, Yulssus Lynn.  Those Glorious Days, A History of Louisville as Georgia’s Capital, 1796- 1807.  Mercer University Press.  Macon, Georgia.  1996.


Howard, Robert M.  Reminiscences. Gilbert Printing Company. Columbus, Georgia. 1912.


Jackson, Edwin L.  Flags That Have Flown Over Georgia.  Georgia Secretary of State Office and Carl Vinson Institute of Government, University of Georgia.  Athens, Georgia.  1995.


Jackson, Edwin L.  Flags That Have Flown Over Georgia.  Internet Web site  2003.


James Madison’s Montpelier. ‘History of the Landscape’ at James Madison’s Montpelier Internet Web site  2003


Kerksis, Sydney. Plates and Buckles of the American Military 1795- 1874. Stone Mountain Press. Stone Mountain, Georgia. 1974.


Kirlkland, Talley. 2003.  Historian, Fort Pulaski National Monument.  Personal Communication, January 13, 2003.


Madaus, Howard Michael.  ‘Flags’ in Echoes of Glory, Arms and Equipment of the Confederacy.  Time-Life Books.  Alexandria, Virginia. 1991


Georgia Office of the Secretary of State. OCGA 50-3-30 in Official Code of Georgia Annotated. 1998 Edition, as certified by the Georgia Office of the Secretary of State, copyrighted by the State of Georgia, and published by Lexis Publishing [Lexis Publishing; Attn: Official Code of Georgia Annotated; P.O. Box 7587; Charlottesville, Virginia 22906-7587].


Georgia Office of the Secretary of State. OCGA 50-3-1(a) in Official Code of Georgia Annotated. 2002 Edition.


Olson, Dorothy.  Director, Georgia Capitol Museum. Personal Communication. 2003.


Preble, George Henry.  History of the Flag of the United States of America. 1878


Rosier, William Henry and Fred Lamar Pearson, Jr.  The Grand Lodge of Georgia, Free and Accepted Mason, 1786- 1980.  Masonic Home Print Shop.  Macon, Georgia. 1983.


Scaife, William R.  The March to the Sea.  Atlanta, Georgia.  1993.


Smith, Gordon Burns.  History of the Georgia Militia, 1783- 1861.  Boyd Publishing.  Milledgeville, Georgia.  2000.


Taylor, Barry.  “The Girl I Left Behind Me” a digital music file sequenced by Barry Taylor, at Folk Music of England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and America. Internet Web site


Thulstrup, Bror Ture de. Engraving of the ‘Georgia Brigade at the Battle of First Manassas’ in Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, Vol. I.  Robert Underwood Johnson and Clarence Clough Buel.  Editors.  The New Century Magazine.  New York, New York.  1887.


Telfair, Nancy.  A History of Columbus, Georgia 1828- 1928.  The Historical Publishing Company.  Columbus, Georgia.  1929.


Waring, Joseph F. Cerveau’s Savannah. Georgia Historical Society. Savannah, Georgia. 1973.




This information was originally prepared for presentation to the Governor’s Commission on Georgia History and Historical Tourism.


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Last Updated 3/2/2003